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There is an important need to develop a biocompatible, quantifiable, very small fluorescent label that never photobleaches nor blinks, and that is brighter than commonly used dyes.

Fluorescent nanodiamonds fulfil these requests. Their surface can be easily functionalized for coupling to biomolecules such as antibodies or ligands. Fluorescent nanodiamonds can then be used for biological analyses, in vitro diagnosis (single molecule studies, quantification of biomolecules), studies that may require long observation time such as in vivo studies and real time imaging, through near-infrared fluorescence that penetrates deeply through tissues.